Speaking of subordination within the Trinity might initially sound peculiar, given that Jesus and the Father are declared to be “one” (John 10:30). The term “subordination” often invokes notions of a lower rank or a subservient position. However, delving into the concept of subordination within the Trinity necessitates an understanding of its nuanced types. The biblical or orthodox perspective on the triune nature of God acknowledges economic subordination within the Trinity while vehemently rejecting the heretical notion of ontological subordination.
What does this entail? Essentially, it underscores that all three Persons of the Godhead share an equality in nature. God the Father, Jesus the Son, and the Holy Spirit possess the same divine nature and attributes. It is crucial to dispel the misconception propagated by certain cults, asserting that there exists an ontological subordination—a difference in the nature of the three Persons of the Godhead. The Trinity is not a composite of superior and inferior gods; instead, it is the eternal existence of one God in three co-equal Persons.
The biblical narrative elucidates an economic (or relational) subordination within the Trinity. The three Persons of the triune Godhead willingly submit to each other in accordance with their roles in creation and salvation. For instance, the Father sends the Son into the world (1 John 4:10), a dynamic not reversed in Scripture—the Son never sends the Father. Similarly, the Holy Spirit is sent by Jesus and “proceeds from the Father” to testify of Christ (John 14:26; 15:26). Jesus, in perfect harmony, submits His will to the Father’s (Luke 22:42; Hebrews 10:7).
Economic or relational subordination is merely a term employed to describe the interrelationship among God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit. In essence, economic subordination within the Trinity pertains to what God does, while ontological subordination pertains to who God is.
From a biblical standpoint, all three Persons of the Trinity share the same essence, nature, and glory. However, each one assumes different roles or activities in how God engages with the world. Consider, for example, that our salvation is rooted in the Father’s power and love, the Son’s death and resurrection, and the Spirit’s regeneration and seal. These distinctive tasks emerge from the eternal relationship among the Persons of the Trinity.
The issue of subordination within the Trinity introduces a nuanced discourse, where the demarcation between ontological and economic subordination is subtle. Theologians within Christian orthodoxy engage in ongoing discussions, exploring the limits of subordination and its correlation with the Incarnation of Christ. Such deliberations prove beneficial as we immerse ourselves in the study of the Scriptures, earnestly seeking to comprehend the profound truths about the nature of God.